Stockman, MacLeod & Johnson lens density spectrum (1993)

Data key


  1. Wavelength (nm)
  2. Lens density


    Proposed adjustment to the lens templates of Wyszecki & Stiles (1967) and van Norren & Vos (1974). The lens densities were optimized to transform cone fundamentals based on the CIE 1964 10-deg color matching functions to cone photopigment curves. Without this small correction, the photopigment curves have a discontinuity in the violet. The discontinuity is dependent on the CMFs--not on the choice of cone fundamentals (see Stockman, MacLeod & Johnson, 1993).  It is caused in part by adjustments to the CMFs made by the CIE (see Stockman and Sharpe, 2000).

The data from 390-460 nm are from Stockman, MacLeod & Johnson, 1993 (see Table 7)
The data from 465-730 nm are from Wyszecki & Stiles, 1982 (see Table 1(2.4.6)).

These values are for a small pupil. For an open pupil, divide by 1.16.


Stockman, A., MacLeod, D. I. A., & Johnson, N. E. (1993). Spectral sensitivities of human cones. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 10, 2491-2521.

Stockman, A., & Sharpe, L. T. (2000). Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype. Vision Research, 40, 1711-1737.

van Norren, D. & Vos J.J. (1974) Spectral transmission of the human ocular media Vision Research, 14, 1237-1244.

Wyszecki, G., & Stiles, W. S. (1967). Color Science New York: Wiley.

Wyszecki, G., & Stiles, W. S. (1982). Color Science (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.