Summary table of human rod numbers and densities

Study
Age
Total number
Diameter of foveal rod free zone (µm)
Peak density (rods/mm2)
Quadrant of peak*
Eccentricity of peak (mm)
Mean density (rods/mm2)
Krause (1868)
--
130,000,000
--
--
--
--
--
Østerberg (1935)
16
110,000,000-125,000,000
260#
170,000
S - N
6.2
104,100
Polyak (1941)
--
--
500-600+
--
--
--
--
Yamada (1969)
45
--
570+
--
--
--
--
Yuodelis & Hendrickson (1986)
37
--
683+
--
--
--
--
72
--
720+
--
--
--
--
Ahnelt et al. (1987)
47
--
250-300#
--
--
--
--
Curcio et al. (1990)
44
--
--
189,000
S - T

4.2

--
27
--
--
186,000
S - N
4.0
--
35
77,870,000
--
158,000
I - T
3.8
90,960
34
107,270,00
350 #%
181,000
S - N
4.0
111,250
35 L*
90,730,000
--
161,000
S - N
3.8
82,350
35 R*
--
--
173,000
S - N
5.0
--
36
--
--
--
--
--
--
32
--
--
--
--
--
--

*N - nasal; T - temporal; S - superior; I - inferior; L - left eye; R - right eye.

+Estimated from horizontal sections through the inner segments or whole mounts.

# Estimated from zone devoid of rod nuclei in the outer nuclear layer.

% Average value.

Modified and expanded from Curcio et al., 1990, Table 2 by Ted Sharpe.



References

Ahnelt, P.K., Kolb, H. & Pflug, R. (1987). Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 255, 18-34.

Curcio, C.A. & Allen, K.A. (1990). Topography of ganglion cells in human retina. Journal of comparative Neurology 293, .

Krause, W. (1868). Über Stäbchen und Zapfen der Retina. Nachr. v. d. K. Gesells. d. Wiss. Göttingen, p. 163.

ěsterberg, G.A. (1935). Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina. Acta Ophthalmologica 13 (Supplement 6) 1-97.

Polyak, S. (1941). The Retina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Yamada, E. (1969). Some structural features of the fovea centralis in the human retina. Archives of Ophthalmology 82, 151-159.

Yuodelis, C. & Hendrickson, A. (1986). A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development. Vision Research 26, 847-855.